Systematics, Anatomy and Morphology of Cacao

Systematics, Anatomy and Morphology of Cacao - According Tjitrosoepomo (1998) systematics cacao can be stated as follows:
Division: spermatophyte
Sub divisions: angiosperms
Class: dicotyledoneae
Sub-class: dialypetalae
Order: malvales
Family: sterculiaceae
Genus: Theobroma
Species: cacao L.


From 22 species present in the genus, Theobroma cacao is claimed to be the only species that have been cultivated commercially and the most popular on the market.

Anatomy of cocoa pods were divided into several parts, that is 73.73% rind cacao (cacao pod), 2%  placenta and 24.2% seed. Ripe cocoa pods have thick skins and contain 30-40 seeds covered by pulp. Rind surface there is a smooth and some are rough. At the bottom of the grooved rind 10 are located alternately. Cacao beans consist of two parts, namely seed puck and seed coat (Niken, 2008).

According Wahyudi (2008), fruit shape and color of fruit varies greatly depending cultivar of cacao Basically there are only two kinds of colors:  young fruits green-colored white, yellow color when ripe and young fruits that are red, orange color when ripe.

Cacao pods will ripe after the age of 5-6 months, depending on the elevation of the planting. At the ripe fruit, fruit size are formed varies considerably with the size range 10-30 cm, 7-15 cm in diameter. Varying size was caused by cultivar and environmental factors during fruit development (Wahyudi, 2008).

Cacao beans arrayed in five rows surrounding the axis of the fruit, the amount of cacao beans vary 20-50 seeds per fruit. In cross-sectional seed cotyledons were two mutually folding and the base attached to the embryo (Wahyudi, 2008).

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