The starting point for understanding the purchasing behavior is a model of stimulus - response. Stimuli marketing and environmental began to enter the consciousness of buyers. Characteristics of buyers and decision-making processes pose a particular purchase decision. The task of marketers is to understand what's happening in the consciousness of buyers ranging from the stimulation from the outside until the advent of buyer's purchase decision.
Main factors Affecting Purchasing Behavior (Consumer)
Consumer purchasing behavior is influenced by factors - cultural, social, personal and psychological. Factors - cultural factors influence the broadest and deepest.
Culture is the determinant of the desire and the behavior of the most fundamental. The children get the grades, perceptions, preferences and attitudes of families and institutions - other important institutions. Children raised in the United States get the value - the value of the following: achievement and success, activity, efficiency and practicality, progress, material enjoyment, individualism, freedom, external pleasures, humanism and the young at heart.
Factors - social factors that influence consumer behavior include a reference group, family and social roles and status.
One's reference group consisted of all the groups that have a direct impact (face to face) or indirectly against a person's attitude or behavior. The group that has a direct influence on a person is called membership group.
Buyer's decision was also influenced by personal characteristics include age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, as well as personality and self-concept buyers.
People buy different goods and services throughout his life. They eat - baby food over the years early of his life, a wide variety of foods over the years of growth and maturity, as well as special diets during for the next years. Taste in clothes, and recreation are also associated with age.
Options someone purchases influenced by four major psychological factors such as motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and convictions.
A person has many needs at any given time. Some needs biogenesis; those needs arise from biological pressures such as hunger, thirst and discomfort. Another requirement is psikogenis; needs arose from psychological pressures such as the need for recognition, appreciation or a sense of group membership. A requirement would be a motive if he was driven to achieve level of intensity adequate. Sufficient motive is the need to encourage someone to act.
Psychologists have developed theory of human motivation. Three of the most famous theory of Sigmund Freud, Abraham Maslow and Fredrick Herberg-have different implications for consumer analysis and marketing strategy.
Marketing stimuli consisted of four elements, namely product, price, place and promotion. Other stimuli include the strength and major events in the environment the buyer is economic, technological, political and cultural. All the input was turned into a buyer's response who can be observed, such as product selection, brand selection, selection of an agent, when - when to buy and the amount purchased (Kotler, 1997: 143-144).
Some other behavior of consumers is:
1. Consumer behavior is the Dynamic
2. Consumer behavior Involving Interaction
3. Consumer behavior Involving Exchange