Development of groundwater irrigation


Development of groundwater irrigationis one effort to develop water resources for agricultural irrigation, good for agricultural business food crops, horticulture, livestock and plantations. Rainfall that is falls to the earth's surface in part can be used directly for irrigation water, partially stored in reservoirs, lakes, and into the groundwater. Rainfall variability in spatial and temporal caused amount, timing and distribution of rainfall vary between regions and time. This variability is often difficult to predict and anticipate so often there is a discrepancy between required and provided. During the dry season, water supply is very limited, while their needs are relatively fixed, so supply of water for agriculture is limited. One potential source of irrigation water used is not optimal utilization of groundwater. Development of groundwater irrigation became a promising option in those locations where surface water availability is very limited.
In practical, utilization of ground water for irrigation can be grouped into two parts: (a) as back-up during a lack of water and (b) as the primary water source. Utilization of irrigation water as back-up is generally done in the rainy season and dry season when there is a shortage of water in rainfed land and dryland.
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Groundwater irrigation
To efficiently utilize groundwater as a source of irrigation water, the necessary effort: taking water from source to the surface of ground and channeling into agricultural business land. At least there four important components to consider in developing groundwater irrigation: (a) wells (b) water pumps and equipment (c) pump house and (d) groundwater irrigation network system.
1. Wells
To be able to utilize sources of groundwater in the well must first be created as a place-making. The well was made by drilling with a water depth of surface of soil in the soil> 60 m.
2. Water Pumps and Equipment
The water pump is used to up water from the soil to the ground. This type of pump is generally used centrifugal pumps, turbine pumps, and submersible pumps. The water pump is driven by diesel motor or electric motor. Equipment needed to pump water to up or take water from the soil, ie discharge hose, pipe bowl, and others.
3. Irrigation pump generator
Generators are usually large-sized irrigation pump so the pump is placed permanently. To protect the water pump and generator from theft and weather effects that can caused damage need to be made pump house. Construction of pump house is permanently devoted to the pump and the engine driven irrigation pumps or large generators.
4. Groundwater irrigation network system
Groundwater irrigation network system Is watering system using a Big Gun Sprinkler and PVC pipe along with the accessories to irrigation network. Charging system and the water suppression using vertical turbine pumps