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Germplasm Bank (Genes Bank) is a means and place of storage and preservation of genetic material that is useful for plant breeding activities. Plant breeding efforts to produce varieties that have high productivity, resistant to pests and diseases resistant to environmental stress requires a source of genes from wild relatives to obtain desired varieties.
Therefore, genetic resources need to be maintained and preserved in order to be utilized when needed. Genes that are not currently needed may be very useful as sources of elders in the assembly of new varieties in the future. For that reason Germplasm Bank was established to collect genetic resources which can be implemented to collect superior properties are desired.
Germplasm is substance of hereditary which may be descendant of intact organs or parts of plants or animals, and microorganisms. Meanwhile, in the sense according to agricultural science, the substance is source of hereditary properties contained in the each group of organisms that can be utilized and developed or assembled in order to create a kind of superior or new cultivars. Germplasm is valuable natural resources for advancement of science and technology for national development.
The existence of multiple germplasm becomes vulnerable and rare, and some already extinct due to the use of biological resources and land use as habitat excessive that extinction. All this is caused by human action. Less attention to policy development environment also contribute to the process of extinction of this germplasm.
Empowerment of germplasm can be done if the available information that sufficient for properties of plant is required, by performing the characterization of morphological and agronomic properties can be formed an ideal plants and by doing resistance properties can be obtained by evaluation of plant response to biotic or abiotic influences.