Thousand Islands National Park area is a potential region for the growth of mangroves due to natural factors such as the availability of supply fresh water from the mainland and the island sediment supply / substrate for mangrove plants. Some islands in the region Thousand Islands Marine National Park is an area of considerable potential mangrove forests, among others West Penjaliran Island, and East Penjaliran Island. Mangrove forests in the Thousand Islands Marine National Park have an important role in the system buffer (buffer zone) for mainland islands. Existence of mangrove forests in the Thousand Islands Marine National Park needs to be maintained, well-managed and sustainable.
Types of Mangrove in Thousand Islands National Park
The introduction of types of mangrove plants in Indonesia can be said to have been completed, but it does not mean that all mangrove forests in Indonesia have known species composition. Differences habitat conditions, the nature and type of substrate / sediment and form of the coast will result in the composition of different types (Steenis, 1995, Budiman et.al, 1985, in Mirmanto 1987). Identification of mangrove species in the Thousand Islands National Park recorded 24 species of mangrove from 15 families, consisting of 15 genuine mangrove species and 9 varieties of mangrove Association where two genuine mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa Griff. and Ceriops tagal C.B. Rob from Rhizophoraceae family has a strong domination and evenly.
Mangrove Ecosystem Productivity
Mangrove forest is coastal ecosystems that have fairly high biological productivity. According to Carter (1973) are important factors in determining the productivity of mangroves for the 2 groups: a) fluctuations in salinity by tidal changes, and b) the water chemistry. Tidal period long enough oxygen transport provides an opportunity to the mangrove root system and increase the presence of nutrients in the mangrove forest. In addition, mangrove waters is also a coastal ecosystem that has a fairly high organic matter, nearly 95% of the production of leaf / litter enter the aquatic environment (Healtd, 1969). Secondly it is an important factor that mangrove vegetation can thrive in the Thousand Islands Marine National Park and be a good habitat for mangrove crabs, snails and other types of shrimp to shelter, grow and produce. Mangrove ecosystem in the Thousand Islands Marine National Park (TNKpS) is a natural buffer for the islands that contribute benefits to humans either directly or indirectly. Terrestrial fauna that can be found in mangrove forests include birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, and insects. Marine fauna can be found including benthos (fish), infauna (Crustaceae) and epifauna (moluska).
Directly or indirectly, the mangrove ecosystem has ecological benefits, social and economic, including: a. Mangrove forest is protective and stabilizing the beach. Mangrove forests to reduce erosion, capture sediment, stabilizing the substrate / ground and battering waves and high winds. b. Producers of organic materials to surrounding waters (leaf litter production). Mangrove leaves that fall will supply organic ingredients (nutrients) is important for a variety of biota and plants in the vicinity. c. Mangrove forest is the habitat and feeding grounds, nursery grounds and spawning ground for many species of marine life, such as shrimp, crab, fish and other types of mollusks. d. Become a source materials in the production of high-value industries, such as anti-malarial drugs, anti-tumor drugs, insect repellent, materials tanners, tannin production, building construction materials. e. The uniqueness and distinctiveness of mangrove ecosystem into a high potential for research, education, fisheries and tourism.
Management of Thousand Islands National Park
Efforts to manage Natural Resources and Ecosystems (sdah & E) in TNKpS especially mangrove ecosystems have been done a long time by BTNKpS (management authority) that since enactment an area of 107 489 ha as the Thousand Islands National Park area. Zoning Thousand Islands Marine National Park in 2004, where Penjaliran Island Core Zone II is the area designated for the protection of the mangrove habitat. Efforts to manage mangrove that have been and are being done up to now is through the inventory and mapping of mangrove TNKpS, manufacture of semi-natural nursery and mangrove rehabilitation through mangrove planting activities. In addition, with the development of Tourism Education and Conservation Program at Scout Island and surrounding areas, ecotourism activities have been carried out through the introduction and mangrove planting activity directly by visitors / students at Scout Island.